Those icons at the bottom of your screen – the ones that give quick access to programs – comprise the dock, and in that dock is a quick link to your downloads. It’s usually at the bottom right.
Hover over it for a quick preview of the most recent downloads or single-click the dock download icon for access to all your downloaded files that have yet to be placed in another folder.
How to find downloads on your Mac using Finder
When the taskbar at the top of the screen says Finder (and it will when you are on your Mac’s home screen), click File, then click New Finder Window.
On the left side of the window that pops up, click Downloads.
How to find downloads on your Mac in a web browser
If the browser where you downloaded a file is still open, you can pull up the download right then and there.
In Google Chrome, click the three dots at the top right corner, then click Downloads.
With Safari, click the downward arrow at the top right corner of the screen to open a menu of recent downloads.